Sunday, September 15, 2019

Dong Qichang, in the Shade of Summer Trees, 17th Century, Ming Dynasty

This painting is from the Ming Dynasty, and very clearly depicts and captures the essence of The Southern School, or Literati painters. The first thing to note is the overall composition of the painting. First and foremost it is a landscape painting. The colors are very monochrome; the space is stretched to reveal a depth to the painting that the eye cannot capture; and there is stillness to the art that embraces nature and serenity of life. In the right-hand corner of the painting there is calligraphy. The calligraphy lacks the precision, but is very clear in its form, much like the depiction within the painting itself. There are three men in the painting. The men are at ease and are almost lost in the painting. The men do not seem distinct from their surroundings but rather just another natural element in the bigger picture. The men are in poses that do not suggest positions that can be held for long periods of time, but rather only a moment. The men appear to be marveling at their surroundings as they look out into the vast wilderness. Above them, and hidden behind trees, there is a building. Just like the men, the nature and trees overwhelm the structure itself, clearly defining the more important and powerful of the two. Just below the men, there is a waterfall. The water appears to be making its way downward winding its way through the clusters of rocks. Water, representing the source of life, flows in this painting with great force, capturing the vitality and life of an individual moment in nature. This painting possesses a narrative emphasizing nature and the life that exists beyond human existence. It is the influence of nature on the human and not the influence of the human on nature. While the painting lacks the formal resemblance we recognize from photographs or our own perception, there is an overall impression that the viewer is left with: a true introduction to nature, and an intimate glimpse into a particular moment. The painting takes what the eye can see and extends it further, to a realm that cannot be captured by someone unless they have the patience and diligence to see beyond the obvious and capture more than the eye permits. Dong Qichang is revealing his discovery of nature and its importance and relevance to himself at a particular moment in time. There is an inner truth and realization that is depicted with every stroke of the brush and as each different element is unveiled, a different realization of life and nature is put down as a record. After attempting to emulate the techniques of Dong Qichang, and create a literati painting using the California scenery, I have realized many things. One is that I would never make it as a painter. The other things revolve around the life of the painting. The painting seems to resonate with a vitality that is captured through the depiction of a moment in time. The wind moves all the trees, and forces them to take on a life of their own and assume a position that seizes a particular moment, even though the layout and the trees themselves seem to lack the likeness to what we would expect to see in nature. The water is caught in a single moment, and we can see the life in it as it tries to get past the rocks and settle below. We know that the water is only in that particular position for a miniscule amount of time, and we can see that the painting truly captures a very distinct and precise time. The painting shows three men, one of whom is lifting his arm to point to something in the distance, and all three men follow with their heads to the direction of his arm. This is also capturing a single moment in time, and the painting serves as the record for a past event that will never be again, and captures emotions distinct to that moment, that will probably never be felt in the same way again. We can see the instantaneous placement of the cloud creating a fog and with it an illusion of something that is unknown and mysterious. This moment is captured so expertly before the fog can be burned away, or hidden by night, or pushed away with the wind. There is also emptiness in the painting. I did not realize this until I started to try to do a landscape drawing of my own. While the emptiness lacks any objects, it seems to have, or be, purposeful in the painting. It represents something, and is a source to the elements in the painting. It could be the wind that is moving the trees, or gravity that is causing the water to fall. The empty part of the picture seems to hold significance to the individual perspective and time of the painting. The artist’s personal feelings and reasoning once again captured and recorded in the painting. All of this being said, the question of how much of the painting is natural and how much of the painting is artifice arises. I think that the best way to tackle this question is from the largest perspective, and narrowing thereafter. That which the painting references is natural, and that which is within the painting is natural, but the composition and interaction between the different elements is artifice. Everything within the painting draws on what is natural: trees, water, rocks, mountains, clouds, humans, etc. It is how these elements interact with each other and with the canvas that enriches the painting with artifice. The interaction between the artist’s thoughts and emotions and nature, are so intertwined that the painting almost masks the artist’s true feelings with the natural behaviors of the elements. It is when the viewer steps back and looks at the whole painting, that one is able to appreciate the importance this painting plays as a record to an individual moment- both for the artist and its muse, nature.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Performance management & Performance appraisal Essay

Nowadays, every company has their human resources department that plays a large part of an organizations and a key to affect business succeeds or not. There are two core threads of human resources department are individual and organizational learning, individual and organizational performance. Human resource management should possess a good management systems and framework; ensure human ability is all used to achieve organization goals. Include strategic human resources management, equal employment opportunity, staffing, talent management and development, total rewards, risk management and worker protection, employee and labor relations. The best organizations understand that managing human resources effectively involves more than focusing only on current employees. It requires a long-term perspective that is responsive to the concerns of current employees; potential future employees and recent employees no longer work for. At the same time, the organizations strive to manage employees effectually, face to many challenges, for instance manning teams, the multicultural workforce, globalization, ethics and corporate social responsibility and metros. Human resources department responsible to provide effectual performance management and system to assist the company is going smooth. Performance management The purpose of performance management is one of the most important and positive developments, achievement of high performance by the organization, managing the business. This is the process of identifying, measuring, managing and developing the performance in an organization. There are showing how well employees perform and finally improve performance level. The further explain that create strategic, integrated process, develop a culture of constantly success to organizations by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of individual contributors and teams (Cardy & Leonard , 2011). The development of individuals with competence and commitment, working towards to shared meaningful objectives within an organization that supports the achievement. When the direction is correctly, performance management is a systematic analysis and measurement of workers performance. Also it is a critical and necessary component for individual and organizational effectiveness. When manage a group of workers or others, report the feedback to boss. It must be a process needed for improvement to occur. In performance management, it is getting the right workers into the production line or suitable staff into the system in a very important part of the overall process (Bergstedt, 2010). Performance appraisal Performance appraisal are part of a performance management system, it is ongoing process of evaluating and reviews of employee performance over time. Provide an opportunity for formal communication between management and the employees, concerning each employee what performing on organization. Create two-way interaction between people. It is a good opportunity and let employee express what their comment to bosses is. Open lines of communication throughout the year help to make effective working relationships. Allow management to make decisions about employees within the organization from this communication. Appraisals to make evaluative decisions concerning the workforce including pay raises, promotions, demotions, training, and development and so on. It cans measures skills and realization with reasonable accuracy and uniformity. The management can depend on this reliable information for making strategic planning, may enhance productivity for the firm as well. It provides a way to help identify areas for performance enhancement and to help promote professional growth. Each employee is entitled to a thoughtful and careful appraisal (Harzing, Pinnington, 2011, p.20-28). The success of the process depends on the supervisor’s willingness to complete a constructive and objective appraisal and on the employee’s willingness to respond to constructive suggestions and to work with the supervisor to reach future goals. Difference between performance management and performance appraisal Performance management focus is on performance management, identifies measures, manages, and develops the performance of people in the organization. It is designed to improve worker performance over time. Emphasis is on performance improvements of individuals, teams and the organization. It will continue process with periodical performance review discussions and then performance planning, analysis, review, development and improvements. Defining and setting performance standards are an integral part and designed by the human resources department but monitored under the each departments. Developmental needs are identified in the beginning of the year on the basis of the competency requirements for the coming year. There is review via mechanisms. However performance appraisal focus is on performance appraisal and ratings. It is just a part of the performance management process. Identifies measures, evaluates the employee’s performance, and then discusses that performance with the employee. Normally it is an annual exercise though periodic evaluations are made. The main functions are on ratings and evaluation. The most important component is rewards and recognition of good performance of staff. Designed and monitored by the human resource department. Developmental needs are identified at the end of the year on the basis of the appraisal of competency gaps. There are review mechanisms to ensure objectivity in ratings. (Fraser, 2007) Characteristics of an unsuccessful performance management system Normally, the good performance possesses ability, motivation and opportunity. It should make use of employee skills and have adequate incentives to urge them willingness to do the job. Provide work in an environment with support and way for expression. Unfortunately, driven by the some situational constraints including physical environment, working conditions, use of outcome of appraisal complexity of job, interdependence and lack of financial or human resources to make performance management system be an unsuccessful (Armstrong & Baron, 2005, p. 78-85). Causes of Failure of a performance management system have legislation affirmative action, lack of raters, less training, rating inflation or deflation, unclear purpose, without or ignore feedback, unfair reward system, appraisal instruments, performance Standards, rating accuracy, accountability of raters, management Commitment, no trust and participation and acceptance. ( Luecke & Hall,2006, p.93-98) Characteristics of a successful performance management system Successful performance management system can manage performance over time to ensure that remain productive, and hopefully become even more capable, as progress in their careers. Designing an effective performance management system should including mirror the corporate culture, clear definition and communications of what good performance ensure all senior management support and understand the level of performance. It may train managers in this performance management. To set a clear expectation for employee, acknowledging that people are doing a good job and recognizing them for a job well done. To set a clear manifest that performance in the company is differentiated and that differences in performance are recognized through the reward system. Differentiate performance fairly and effectively; through actions to show poor performance is being address, high performance will have a great rewards. Set an expectations or employee development, adjust the system if needed. Even compete performance management have a well strategic, developmental and administrative, also need line managers and senior management behave in a same way and support. That would be accomplished to achieve the organization goals. (Roberts Alan, 2012) An unsuccessful versus a successful performance management system When an unsuccessful compare a successful performance management system, if under unsuccessful performance management system. Without any clear objective, goals and fair rules in this organization. The whole company will face to employee leave, low morale and not belong to the company. Without employee support and the bad relationship between company. The business must be going worst. On the contrary, if company has a good performance management system with a clear fairly and effectively goals, the employee and management will all support and try the best to achieve goals. The business will be getting better for each part under a pleased environment. (Bhattacharyya, 2011, p.47-52) Some common errors and eliminated The common errors including distributional errors occur in three forms, severity or strictness, central tendency and leniency. There are based on a standard normal distribution. In severity or strictness error, the rater evaluates everyone or nearly everyone. Similarity error occurs when raters evaluate subordinates that judge or consider more similar as better employees. All have a tendency to feel more comfortable with people who feel are more similar. The similarity is based on demographic characteristics such as race. Allow this feeling of comfort with similar individuals to be reflected in the performance appraisal process. It can avoid similarity error by embracing diversity and objectively evaluating individual employees based on their actual performance. Contrast error is the rater compares and contrasts performance between two employees, rather than using absolute measures of performance to measure each employee. For example, the rater may contrast a good performer with an outstanding performer, and as a result of the significant contrast. This would be a contrast error. It can avoid contrast error by objectively evaluating individual employees based on actual performance. Management must use the ranking method correctly; each individual based on the items on the assessment form then rank the individuals based on their assessments. Halo and horn occurs when the evaluator has a generally positive or negative impression of an individual, and the evaluator then artificially extends that general impression to many individual categories of performance to create an overall evaluation of the individual that is either positive or negative In other words, if employees are judged by their supervisor to be generally good employees, and the supervisor then evaluates each of the areas of their performance as good, regardless of any behaviors or results to the contrary, the supervisor is guilty of halo error. It can avoid halo error by remembering that employees are often strong in some areas and weaker in others, and need to objectively evaluate individual employees based on actual performance for each and every item of assessment. Appraisal politics is refers to evaluators purposefully contorting a rating to achieve personal or organization goals. Factors other than performance affect the performance appraisal. These factors are internal in the appraisal system and the organization system. It is occur when raters are accountable to the employee and rated, it appear competing rating goals and direct linking current between performance appraisal and most desirable rewards. In order to lessen this matter, managers should keep in mind and pay attention a fair appraisal system. Central tendency error occurs when raters evaluate everyone under the control as average nobody is either really good or really bad. Proximity error states that similar marks may be given to items that are near each other on the performance appraisal form, regardless of differences in performance on those measures. Regency error occurs when raters use only the last few weeks or month of a rating period as evidence of their ratings of others. Attribution error. In simplified terms, attribution is a process where an individual assumes reasons or motivations such as attitudes, values, or beliefs for an observed behavior. Reducing rater errors is offer reeducating rating errors. Rater training undertaken to make managers aware of rating errors and helps develop strategies for minimizing those errors. This is consisting of the participants view vignettes designed to elicit rating errors, for example contrast. Rater Error Training called frame-of-reference training as well, emphasize the multidimensional nature of performance and raters with the actual content of various performance dimensions. Moreover, accuracy training seems can increasing accuracy and provided the training allows raters to practice making ratings and training feedback. Create a fair system should include train raters on the appropriate use of the process as discussed previously, build top management support for the appraisal system and actively discourage distortion, give raters some latitude to customer performance objectives and criteria for their rates, recognize employee accomplishments that are not self-promoted, make sure constraints for example a budget. Also make sure that appraisal processes are consistent across the company and foster a climate of openness to encourage employees to be honest the weakness. (Salaman, Storey & Billsberry, 2005, p.19-27) Conclusion In conclusion, this essay is proving that good performance management is one of the most important positions in the company. Seeing that it can help employee and management together to achievement the goals under high performance. At the same time, human resources department is a very chief role to develop perfect performance management system and need to avoid some common error. Thus, that’s why human resources are a big part in the organization and influence the whole company. Word count: 2013 Reference Armstrong Michael & Baron Angela (2005): Managing Performance: Performance Management in Action, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, CIPD House London, p. 78-85 Bergstedt Martin, (2010) [online] Available at: [Accessed October 27, 2012]. Bhattacharyya Dipak Kumar, (2011): Performance Management Systems and Strategies, Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd, licensees of Pearson Education in South Asia p.47-52 Cardy Robert L & Leonard Brian, (2011): Performance Management: Concepts, Skills, and Exercises Second Edition, M.E.Sharpe, Inc New York, p.134-156 Fraser Ross, (2007) [online] Available at: [Accessed July 5 2007]. Harzing Anne-Wil, Pinnington Ashly, (2011): International Human Resources Management Third Edition, SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Ltd Singapore p.20-28 Luecke Richard, Hall Brian J, (2006): Performance Management: Measure and Improve the Effectiveness of Your Employees, Harvard Business School Press p.93-98 Roberts Alan, (2012) [online] Available at: [Accessed June 25, 2012]. Salaman Graeme, Storey John, Billsberry Jon, (2005): Strategic Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice Second Edition, Published in association with The Open University p.19-27

Friday, September 13, 2019

Consider the claims that Baudelaire makes and the points of argument Assignment

Consider the claims that Baudelaire makes and the points of argument that he makes - Assignment Example Instead, it posits the popular sense of being a mirror of the physical, visible world. However, at the same time to a fine artist, the photograph would depict a sensational piece of artwork depending to the title that it is given. If the title in totally sums up all the elements of the photograph without exaggeration or assumption, then it would much the fine art that Baudelaire talks about. The photograph does not show the element of surprise that would also symbolize a sense of beauty that comes with it. The photograph seems more or less dry, lacks taste and a sense of humor or wonder (85). This is due to lack of beauty that goes hand in hand with wonder and enthusiasm of scrutiny at the image as an image of mental reflection by the artist and the art lovers. As such the photograph is a qualification of the fact that photography cannot be allowed to deputize arts activities as it will altogether corrupt the good work of art. Photographs in many instances serve as a reminder of the many memories that the photographer would prefer to keep. The consideration of photography as an important part of the art does not reflect wholly on what fine art ought to be. Photographs in terms of artwork do not depict the amount of creativity of the photographer as much as painting would (86). This is because in photography, in most cases there is no a predetermined kind of thoughts and imagery that runs in ones mind as is mostly seen in the art of painting. As time goes by the scene of art has been corrupted as more and more elements are being considered as a piece of art so long as it is beautiful to the eye of the public. As a result, "art is losing in self-respect, is prostrating itself before external reality," (88) while the artists have become more inclined to works that are not driven by dream but what is appealing to the physical eye. The creativity of an

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Movie Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Movie Assignment - Essay Example This paper shall candidly and comprehensively elucidate on virtue ethics and the issues that surround it by considering its application and/or violation in the movie â€Å"Iron Man 2." One of the scenes that can adequately be used to describe virtue ethics in the movie â€Å"Iron Man 2† is Iron Man (Tony) and his Stark industries. As an industry that engages in the production of weapons for the American military, Business in this sector can be a persistent quandary for those involved. As the movie begins, Tony Mark has no doubts and strongly believes that the missiles that he creates protect and support American paramilitaries (Casey et al., 12). When Tony goes to Afghanistan to exhibit a newly created missile, a terrorist cell bombs his caravan. Tony looks at the grenade and sees the label â€Å"Stark Industries† before it explodes. After its explosion, Tony ends up interspersed with shrapnel and the terrorists easily apprehend him. Even after arrest, Tony does not face the anticipated sufferings. He is saved because the terrorist wanted Tony to create a similar missile for them. Eventually, Tony seepages and returns to his home country where he takes time to essentially reason about what his business does. Through his statements, Tony expresses embarrassment. â€Å"I never got to say good-bye to my father†¦.I would have asked him how he felt about what this company did if he was conflicted, if he ever had doubts† (Casey et al., 24). It had dawned on Tony that the terrorists acquired his weapons and were fully using them against the Americans; whom the weapons were meant to defend and safeguard. After this recognition, tony wonders what to do with the company; ethical dilemma skulks in. Despite the sheer fact that his company engages in other activities, weapon production was the main income generating activities. Tony attributes most of his

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

HI 325C The Frontier Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

HI 325C The Frontier - Essay Example Kit Carson uses those virtues and skills to overcome challenges and hardships in the Rocky Mountains. One, he uses his keenness to protect himself and other traders. One instance when Kit Carson’s promptness of action is tested is the night when an inexperienced guard alerts them of invading Indians. Kit Carson is seen to be on his feet in an instant with a pistol on his hand (Abbott 12). It is asserted that the loss of a single second may give an enemy the opportunity to launch its attack and disappear in the dark night. Kit Carson reacts quickly and shoots his mule. Nevertheless, it is a false alarm. Two, his persistence enables him to hunt for food and find a suitable location to set camp. Carson travels for over fifty miles with his mule and horse, looking at every stream and creek, being on the lookout for any indication of a beaver. Kit Carson selects a location for his camp after travelling past a meandering stream circling through the centre, which he believes has a la rge number of beavers (Abbott 17). Finally, his acquaintance of the Spanish language becomes a beneficial investment to him. It enables him to retain everything that the expert ranger of the woods convey in respect to the topography of the Far West, the challenges to be encountered, and the ways of dealing with them. Part 2 Last of the Mohicans This part will discuss whether the movie Last of the Mohicans portray the Trans-Appalachian frontier of the 1750s as a bloody â€Å"no-man’s-land† between clashing empires, or as a â€Å"middle ground† in which settlers and natives interact peacefully and exchange culture on equal terms. It will also evaluate whether it portrays Indians as bloodthirsty and savage or as peaceful and virtuous, and look at how the British and French officials in this film differ in their attitude toward Indians and colonial settlers. The movie portrays the Trans-Appalachian frontier of the 1750s as a bloody â€Å"no-man’s-land† between clashing empires. From the start of the movie there is a battle for the control of colonial America by the French and British troops. The British troops seek military assistance from a number of Native American war groups who are not willing to leave their residence undefended. As the French and British soldiers fight for the control of the North America, the natives and the settlers are compelled to take sides. In recruiting Native Americans for their military battles, the

INDIVIDUAL CASE STUDY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

INDIVIDUAL CASE STUDY - Essay Example Thus its organizational culture and leadership strategies are reflected in its focused strategic initiatives such as SWOT, PESTEL analysis and so on. However its leadership related and organizational culture centric problems have been highlighted in order to focus attention on its current level of operations. Business strategy is defined as the longer term directional thrust of the organization with specific focus of attention on resource capability enhancement strategies to achieve organizational goals in a competitive environment to satisfy stakeholders’ demands (Johnson and Scholes, 2002). The Real Chocolate Company Inc. has been in business for approximately three decades and now has become one of the top hundred fastest growing small public companies in the USA. Its concentration on gourmet niche chocolate market in the US is particularly significant against the backdrop of ever increasing diversity and complexity of the gourmet chocolate industry. With almost 300 chocolates in the portfolio and a further 100 turned out on special occasions like the Valentine’s Day, the company has achieved a marvelous feat of targeting every segment of the gourmet chocolate market. The company’s success is determined by the quality and strange enough the quantity of the product. With a gamut of popular proprietary recipes of its own, the company has positioned itself in the US market with unparalleled success. Its use of the best ingredients and chocolates has led to the current wave of demand for its caramel-coated apples, truffles, toffees and fudges among others which include even a range of sugar-free sweets. The company has been marketing a health-centric line of products to the health conscious customer. According to the National Confectioners’ Association (NCA) in 2006 alone the retail sales of confectionery topped $ 28.9 billion in the US while that of retail chocolate

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Discuss the Impact of the Recession on Consumer Behavior and on Essay

Discuss the Impact of the Recession on Consumer Behavior and on Marketers - Essay Example At the same time, marketers are resorting to new promotional campaigns in order to remain competitive and gain consumer attention in the face of this current economic downturn. Food and technology Statistics indicate that six in 10 consumers have reduced the volume of frequency as it pertains to eating-out in restaurant environments (Bainbridge 2010). As a result, especially noticeable in the pizza restaurant industry, marketers have changed their promotional activities to include vouchers with significant pricing discounts (Bainbridge). Where once major companies in this industry, such as Pizza Hut, used psychographic segmentation and targeting to gain attention and loyalty, they are finding it more difficult to compete especially when their products carry high price tags over competition. Companies like Pizza Hut once had well-established consumer segments that were devoted to the brand and were able to use rather low-cost marketing and higher price methodology to ensure positionin g in terms of quality. Today, however, the recession has created price wars that continue to erode profitability especially with more consumers eating within the home and avoiding the high costs of restaurant eating. This is also noticeable in the fast food industry with new promotions being added to traditional menus, such as McDonald’s with its dollar menu variety. However, this marketing effort is not bring the type of profit results marketers had once experienced early in the recession. Today, new freebie offers and Internet-based incentives coupons are becoming the norm for many consumer segments (Glazer 2009). This shows a shift in consumer behaviour toward active searching in the consumer search process to identify coupons before they will frequent even their favourite restaurants. There is clearly a value-driven methodology in consumer groups that change their buying behaviours and choices. This is even apparent in how grocery stores market their food products, with t he new value-based consumer searching for low-cost products. Statistics indicate that 53 percent of today’s recession-minded consumers are buying fewer organic products and 50 percent are even turning toward generic or private label brands (Frozen Food Age 2008). Organic products and well-known product brands used to be the driver for significant profitability in the grocery industry, however the recession is changing the supply chain to identify new value for consumers in order to sustain their business. Morrisons, one of the largest grocers in the UK, has control over much of its supply chain and is therefore able to ride out the recession successfully by using new promotional tactics. The store is able to provide fresh food options at a much cheaper price than competition and uses this fresh quality positioning to sustain higher profitability than other markets without control over their purchasing system (Mortimer 2009). However, it shows that the consumer propensity to c hange from their loyal and trusted brands to generic and private label brands and how it has affected total marketing and purchasing/distribution strategies. The grocery industry has identified that 44 percent of shoppers now consider private label products to be on par or even better than long-standing trusted brands ( 2009). This is a danger to